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ASTM standard D gives the following empirical equation for the cetane index: ASTM standard D gives the cetane index according to the following four-variable equation: The cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals first appears in a liquid upon cooling. Operating at temperatures below the cloud point for a diesel fuel can result in fuel filter clogging due to the wax crystals.

The apparatus used for this test is shown in Figure below. The cloud point is an important property for biodiesel since biodiesel fuels typically have higher cloud points, i. This feature has implications on the use of biodiesel in cold weather applications. A summary of the procedure steps is 1 the sample is cooled in a Peltier device at a constant rate, 2 the sample is continuously monitored by optical detectors, and 3 the temperature is recorded that corresponds to the first formation of a cloud in the fuel.

The repeatability of the cloud point test is less than0. The pour point is the lowest temperature at which a fuel sample will flow. The pour point also has implications for the handling of fuels during cold temperatures. Copper Strip Corrosion Detection of copper corrosion from petroleum products by the copper strip tarnish test measures the degree to which the fuel can have a corroding effect on various metals. The corrosivity of a fuel has implications on storage and use of the fuel.

Then the strips are washed in a solvent and compared to the descriptions in Table given below. Light orange, almost the same as freshly polished strip b.

Dark orange 2 Moderate Tarnish a. Multicolored with lavender blue or silver, or both, overlaid on claret red d. Brassy or gold 3 Dark Tarnish a. Magenta overcast on brassy strip b. Multicolored with red and green showing peacock , but no gray 4 Corrosion a. Transparent black, dark gray or brown with peacock green barely showing b. Graphite or lusterless black c. Glossy or jet black Ramsbottom Carbon Residue Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products determines the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil, indicating its relative propensity to form coke. It is a potential indicator of the likelihood that a fuel would form deposits from carbon in an engine's combustion chamber.

Heating Value, Net and Gross There are actually two heating values in common use, the higher, or gross, heating value and the lower, or net, heating value. Both quantities are measured using a calorimeter where the heat transfer from the hot gases resulting from combustion of the fuel with air is measured as the gases are cooled to the initial temperature of the reactants. The higher heating value assumes that all of the water in the products is condensed liquid while the lower heating value assumes all of the water is present as vapor, even though the product temperature may be below the dew point temperature.

The lower heating value is the most common value used for engine applications. It is used as an indicator of the energy content of the fuel. In general, the higher the heating value of the fuel, the less fuel that will be required to do a given amount of work. Acid Number Acid number is the quantity of base, expressed as milligrams KOH per gram of sample, required to titrate the sample to a specified end point Biodiesel limit 0. The acid number is also a measure of free fatty acids. The free fatty acids can lead to corrosion and are a symptom of water in the fuel or fuel oxidation.

This is also an indication of the condition of the stability of the fuel, because the acid number increases as the fuel ages. Test method - The sample is dissolved in a mixture of toluene and iso-propanol that contains a small amount of water. The sample is titrated potentiometrically with alcoholic potassium hydroxide.

The meter readings are plotted against the respective volumes of titrating solution and the end points are taken at well defined inflections in the resulting curve. It is applicable to naphthas, distillates, oils, gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel and jet fuel. Some process catalysts used in petroleum and chemical refining can be poisoned when trace amounts of sulfur are present. Sample combustion gases are next exposed to UV light. The SO2 is excited, from which fluorescence is emitted as it returns to its stable state.

The fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier tube and the resulting signal is a measure of the amount of sulfur contained in the sample. Sulfated Ash This test method determines the amount of mineral ash remaining after a fuel is burned. For biodiesel, this test is an important indicator of the quantity of residual metals in the fuel that could come from the catalyst used in the esterification process. The lower limit of this test is 0. Test Method — The sample is ignited and burned until only ash and carbon remain.

The iodine value is an indicator of the unsaturation of the fuel, which has been linked with formation of engine deposits and problems in storing the fuel. Water and Sediment This test method covers the determination of the volume of free water and sediment in middle distillate fuels. This test is a measure of cleanliness of the fuel. For B biodiesel it is particularly important because water can react with the esters to make free fatty acids and can support microbial growth in storage tanks. This method used to measure water and sediment is only sensitive to free water.

It uses a centrifuge to separate small water droplets and particles to be sure they do not exceed 0. An earlier method D specified that a solvent should be added to allow the measurement to include dissolved water but since diesel fuel will only dissolve about 50 ppm of water, this has little impact on whether the fuel exceeds the specification value.

This test is particularly important when working with biodiesel because biodiesel is usually water-washed to remove traces of soap and free glycerol. Vacuum drying is usually needed to remove residual water following the washing process. Test Method - A ml sample of undiluted fuel is centrifuged in a tube readable to 0.

After centrifugation, the volume of water and sediment which has settled into the tip of the centrifuge tube is read to the nearest 0. Lubricity Lubricity can be defined as: The lower the friction the higher the lubricity. Pure biodiesel and high level blends have excellent lubricity. Gas Chromatography Chromatographic methods are used to separate a mixture of compounds based on their physical properties. It determines the amount of glycerol in derivatized form , mono- and diacylglycerols both also in derivatized form , triacylglycerols, and methyl esters in a biodiesel sample.

In GC, the mixture is separated mainly by the boiling point and the structure imparting a feature termed polarity of the individual compounds. To carry out a GC analysis, the sample is usually dissolved in low concentrations in an organic solvent and then injected into the gas chromatograph. In some cases, a sample needs to be derivatized with a specific reagent in order to obtain a useful gas chromatogram. This is the case for biodiesel. Glycerol and the mono- and di-acylglycerols contain free hydroxyl groups, causing these materials not to perform well in GC.

Derivatization in the case of biodiesel with a silylating reagent improves their performance considerably. Derivatization can provide better resolution between compounds with similar properties. After injection into the gas chromatograph, the sample is separated on a column. A column is a long, thin path capillary tube that contains a material with which the sample components interact more or less strongly depending on their structure polarity!

Usually, the solvent used and, if applicable, residual derivatizing agent used for preparing the sample are the first materials to elute i. When the detector detects a material eluting from the column at a certain retention time i. Generally, the integrated value of the peak an amplitude over time is proportional to the amount of material causing them. This constitutes the usefulness of GC in quantifying the amounts of components in a mixture Fuel Stability A fuel is considered unstable when it undergoes chemical changes that produce undesirable consequences such as deposits, acidity, or a bad smell.

There are three different types of stability commonly described in the technical literature. Thermal stability addresses fuel changes that occur due to elevated temperature. These changes may occur at conditions encountered in modern fuel injection systems as fuel is recirculated through the engine cylinder head and back to the fuel tank. Oxidative stability refers to the tendency of fuels to react with oxygen at temperatures near ambient.

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These reactions are much slower than those that would occur at combustion temperatures, and they produce varnish deposits and sediments. Storage stability is also a frequently used term and refers to the stability of the fuel while it is in long-term storage. These terms are not necessarily exclusive terms. For example, oxidative attack is probably one of the primary concerns of storage stability but storage stability might also involve issues of water contamination and microbial growth. El aceite crudo no comestible es la materia prima habitual, p. Materia insaponificable, aquella que no se puede saponificar.

La fase alta en glicerina se recolecta en un tanque de la bomba junto con el agua del lavado debido a su contenido de metanol y glicerina. El metanol que contiene fases p. Todas las opciones tienen ventajas y desventajas. Por lo tanto, es sumamente esencial que se sigan las siguientes observaciones: Cenizas sulfatadas ISO 0. Por lo tanto, es una medida de la tendencia de una muestra para formar con el aire una mezcla inflamable.

La siguiente figura muestra el recipiente de prueba para el aparato. El recipiente se llena con combustible y se calienta con un calentador externo. El agitador garantiza que la temperatura del combustible sea uniforme. Entonces se hace un cambio para que el motor funcione con una mezcla de dos combustibles de referencia. El aparato usado para esta prueba se muestra en la siguiente figura. El resumen de los pasos del procedimiento es: La corrosividad de un combustible tiene implicaciones en el almacenamiento y uso del combustible.

Color bronce u oro. Magenta nublado en la tira bronceada. Multicolor mostrando rojo y verde como pavo real , pero no gris. Grafito o negro sin brillo. Negro brillante o negro azabache. Esta prueba es una medida de la limpieza del combustible. Lubricidad La lubricidad se puede definir como: Generalmente, el valor integrado del pico y la amplitud en el tiempo, es proporcional a la cantidad del material que los causa. The biodiesel industry has expanded far beyond a niche market to become a significant industrial player. Biofuels are taking on renewed global importance as countries seek to substitute the soaring price of conventional oil and cut hazardous emissions.

Global output of biodiesel is between and million gallons annually. Although Biodiesel can be marketed as an ordinary fuel and our calculations in Financial Planning section are based on market price of conventional diesel, we believe, that most perspective customers are farms, in-city transport companies and those who need lowest possible pollution levels in technological processes: Although with some limitations, this was true for years and seems to be accelerating due to political and economical reasons.

It is necessary to assume, however that because of future increasing of Biodiesel production over the world, prices of Biodiesel can go up only to a sustainable extent. We are part of rapidly growing biofuel business, which includes also producers of heating oils and oleochems. Unless sells of petrodiesel remain subject to excise and other taxes, our product would be uncompetitive on market. Biggest problem may appear if state imposes the above-mentioned taxes for Biodiesel, which however, is highly unlikely, because of strategic importance of alternative fuels for country.

Strategy and implementation summary Our company believes that qualitative approach will substantially expand the available market for us by creating a new supply route into the mainstream fuels infrastructure that does not exist today: Emphasize inherent qualities of Biodiesel and focus on target markets. We need to establish our business offering as a clear and viable alternative for our target markets. Strategy pyramid For placing emphasis on quality, our main tactics are technology expertise and developing our own supply network.

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Our specific programs for technology are continuos learning and research. Specific programs for supply include cultivation of Jatropha seed and cooperative agreements with local farms. This shall be achieved by cost effective scientific farming of Jatropha with proper management. Value proposition We think our value proposition is quite clear and quite easily distinguished from most others in the market. We offer ecology-friendly and renewable type of fuel at a reasonable market price. Competitive edge Our most important competitive edge is entering Jatropha cultivation and fuel supply industry with newest technologies and gaining experience and market share before competitors came.

Unlike mineral fuel, Biodiesel is renewable energy source, with competitive cost and performance. Promotion We depend on direct contacts as our main way to reach new buyers. As we grow, however, we need to change the way we promote ourselves: We'll be developing our core positioning message: We will be using local newspaper advertising, radio, and cable TV to launch the initial campaign.

Distribution We focus on the market need for environment friendly fuel distributed through the authorized gas filling stations. We will also maintain close relationships with transport companies and agricultural enterprises. Sales strategy Our major intention is to keep levels of monthly production, sales, and collections close one to another. Because Biodiesel is highly liquid product, this goal can be implemented with right choice of distributors and suppliers m. Direct —cost of Biodiesel production is projected under Table: Biodiesel, glycerol and Jatropha cake We must charge appropriately for this unique type of feed stock, but we want also to predict revenues as close as possible and to eliminate market risk, so we plan to it as below Table: Sales programs There are three sales programs in this business plan: Biodiesel is planned to sell using direct mail, seminars, promotion programs and advertising in business newspapers.

Because Biodiesel is a valuable fuel for in-city transportation companies, direct mail to these and other companies would be effective tool in promotion. Ecology, energy, technology related seminars are effective in finding regional representatives, partners, suppliers and buyers of our product. Total budget for all these programs is shown in Profit and Loss Statement, Advertising and Miscellaneous expenses.

The seed cake is an excellent fertilizer and has a waste market Glycerin be marketed to costematic, soap industries. Milestones The following table lists 1-st year milestones, with dates and budgets for each. The milestone schedule indicates our emphasis on planning for implementation. The most important programs are Jatropha cultivation Stages 1 to Harvesting and equipment installation.

We omitted secondary actions like office preparation, stationery purchase or calls to perspective customers. Management Our management philosophy is based on responsibility, mutual respect and entrepreneurial creativity. Our main management divisions are farming, processing, and sales. Farming handles cultivation of Jatropha; processing- pressing of oil seeds and production of Biodiesel. We believe we have a good team for covering the main points of the business plan: Personnel plan The Personnel Plan reflects the need to bolster our capabilities to match positioning in the fuel and agricultural market.

The need for labor force was estimated accordingly to industry experience and technological needs. Project Financing Summary of finance required presented on the table below. We expect outside investor to finance the entire project and we offer him Direct costs were calculated in accordance to market prices of chemicals, all other expenses were also properly allocated in the income statement 6.

This assumption and other financial indicators shown in the table below 8. There are three stages - plantation, extraction, and transesterification - are considered. These stages are considered to be separate entities in this calculation. Cost calculated for the seed is loaded to the extraction stage, assuming that the seed is bought by an extraction unit, and then the corresponding raw oil cost is calculated. Finally, the raw oil cost is loaded to the transesterification stage, again assuming that a transesterification unit is using this raw oil and transesterifying it to bio-diesel.

Unforeseen factors and developments our ability to implement its business strategy may be adversely affected by factors that the we Cannot currently foresee, such as unanticipated costs and expenses, interruptions to or delays in production, reduced demand for the Our product, technological change, loss of political support for Biodiesel or severe economic downturn. All of these factors may necessitate changes to the business strategy described in this document. Competition There can be no assurance those potential competitors of the company, which may have greater financial, research and development, sales and marketing and personnel resources than ours.

It is anticipated that the market will become increasingly competitive over the coming decade. Additionally, several other biofuels and renewable fuels could be introduced to the market as alternatives to mineral diesel. Should these alternatives be selected in the market the demand for Biodiesel could be diluted.

Dependence on key personnel We believe that its future success will greatly depend upon the expertise and continued services of certain key executives and technical personnel, including the executive Directors We cannot guarantee the retention of such key executives and technical personnel. As a result, our business, its results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. General risks Our business may be affected by the general risks associated with all companies in the energy industry. The prices received for our goods and products depend on numerous factors, many of which are beyond its control and the exact effect of which cannot be accurately predicted.

Such factors include general economic and political activities, including the extent of governmental regulation and taxation. An investment could be affected adversely by changes in economic, political, administrative, taxation or other regulatory factors The company faces a number of industrial risks such as a dispute with its workforce and dependence on key suppliers, both of which may lead to a deterioration in financial performance.

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Risks associated with international sales. Operational risks The financial performance of the Company is at all times subject to operational risks. For example, the technology could face unforeseen refining problems, in which case production and financial performance would be delayed. Unanticipated additional maintenance of the machine would also impact the production capacity and revenue projections.

Storage tanks should be fully sealed at all times in order to ensure quality Biodiesel and to minimize moisture being added to the fuel. The risk of contamination of the pure vegetable oil or Biodiesel exists from transportation, expelling, storage and refining should the proper quality procedures and handling guidelines not be adhered. The Company is also at risk of the contamination of its raw materials supplies at source which may lead to stock write downs and an inability to supply customers.

The Company attempts to safeguard against this risk by checking materials prior to purchase and dispatch and on receipt at the relevant processing facility. Agricultural risk Our business may be affected by all general risks associated with agricultural production. Theft is also a concern in certain regions, should trees be deemed valuable as another commodity in those regions. The use of petro-diesel in engines creates a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions that can be greatly reduced by substituting a blend of Bio diesel and petro-diesel or using percent Bio diesel.

Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced in a number of ways through the Bio diesel production process including: The Bio diesel production process. Carbon sequestration, seed cake and Bio diesel are potential CER sources while glycerine is a potential additional revenue source. Bio diesel can be produced from plants such as rapeseed, palm, coconut, or soybean or from used cooking oil from restaurants. Regarding Clean Development Mechanism projects, there is a great potential in the use of Jatropha Curcas, or Pine nut.

Jatropha is a small tree that has the ability to grow in poor soils and tolerate low rainfall and droughts, as well as areas with high rainfall; it can often grow in areas where other plants cannot. The study concluded that Bio diesel yields 3. In relation to carbon credits, it has been estimated that 1 hectare of Jatropha Curcas could result in CO2 emissions reductions of 10 tonnes per year Francis and Becker There is a large potential for CDM Bio diesel projects in many countries.

Other countries deemed to have potential for the establishment of Jatropha plantations include Indonesia, Namibia, Morocco and Paraguay. Research is being conducted throughout the world, funded by both developed and developing countries, on establishing plantations for Bio diesel and on producing Bio diesel. However, lack of experience in producing Bio diesel and problems with seed and oil storage causes risk of investment to be fairly high. Carbon credits can help to reduce this risk and encourage investment in Bio diesel.

Including revenue from carbon credits from petro-diesel substitution and possibly carbon sequestration and nitrogen based fertilizer substitution; Bio diesel projects become considerably financially attractive. Interest in the use of the seeds of Jatropha Curcas, as well as other plants, to make the oil is rapidly expanding. CDM potential is present in a large number of countries due to the number of types of plants from which Bio diesel can be made.

The time for realizing the potential of Bio diesel in the carbon market has arrived. Necesitamos establecer nuestra oferta de negocio como una alternativa clara y viable para nuestros mercados objetivo. Nuestra estrategia se enfoca en el bajo costo del producto. Sin embargo, a medida que vayamos creciendo tendremos que cambiar la forma en que nos promovemos: Vamos a desarrollar nuestro mensaje central de posicionamiento para diferenciar nuestro producto de la competencia.

La pasta de semillas es un excelente fertilizante y tiene un mercado de residuos. Creemos tener un buen equipo para cubrir los puntos principales del plan de negocios: Financiamiento del proyecto En la siguiente tabla se presenta un resumen del financiamiento requerido. Se presentan otras suposiciones financieras en la siguiente tabla: Todos estos factores pueden necesitar cambios en la estrategia de negocios descrita en este documento.

Unfortunately, there is no unified explanation on how to understand it. At the same time, Supreme Audit Institutions SAIs worldwide have little or no experience in audits concerning sustainable energy. Thus, the aim of the Guidance is to help SAIs to understand issues concerning this topic and to identify a suitable audit approach. The Guidance enables a reader: The Guidance respects the following four steps1: STEP 1 Understand the sustainable energy issue and its influence on society, economy, and the environment Step 1 aims to identify problematic issues regarding the sustainable energy in the respective country and their impact on society, economy, and the environment.

Chapter 1 focuses on Step 1 and gives the reader a basic overview of the most used energy resources and their advantages and drawbacks, as well as of energy consumption, savings, and efficiency. Chapter 2 focuses on this topic. STEP 3 How to choose audit topics Based on information obtained in Steps 1 and 2, auditors will identify areas that can be subject to an audit in the framework of legislative competencies and specify instruments appropriate for an audit or that are advisable to audit.

Chapter 3 focuses on this issue and shows some approaches to potential topics on sustainable energy. It also contains an analysis of possible risks risk assessment. STEP 4 Design the audit Step 4 introduced in Chapter 4 explains audit planning and preparation of an audit on sustainable energy. An audit logic matrix for performance audit of the sustainable energy issue also forms a part of Step 4.

A logical follow-up of Step 4 is carrying out an audit which is discussed in Chapter 5. The Annexes provide practical tips, case studies of sustainable energy audits, tips for setting audit criteria from international and national legislation, a guide on how to carry out audits on grants, and a guide on how to cope with the issue analysis. All this information is completed by a general overview on the questionnaire survey we made and an overview on audits carried out in this field up to now.

How to develop a Guidance Material in Environmental Auditing, available at www. We understand sustainable energy as an issue covering two main fields; the first one is energy generation from renewable energy resources RERs , and the second one is the most effective and economic use of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. However, there are a number of obstacles that can hinder progress towards a broader use of sustainable energy, including: Each country should adopt measures to increase the proportion of energy produced from RERs in their energy mix.

The broader use of RERs can make it possible to: Public funding may be used to promote and expand the sustainable energy field, through direct funding of projects realized and through research and technology development. Thus, it is necessary to review and audit both the management of spending from public funds and the effectiveness of policies and programmes in achieving their stated objectives.

The guide does not cover the transport and transport related policy tools. The transport issues are mentioned only marginally in the parts of the guide where it is appropriate for its logical structure. Basic information on energy issues Biomass as a RER has a lot of advantages. For instance, biomass combustion does not increase the level of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere but it is necessary to replace e. Another advantage of biomass is that its combustion can be used e.

Using biomass as a RER also has two potential disadvantages. Growing biomass crops may displace agricultural land that could be used for growing crops for food; more land is used for growing energy crops, deforestation and soil erosion occurs, and the foodstuffs market is affected. Also, combustion of some biofuels can release a high amount of air pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydropower The energy of water can be obtained by using its flow kinetic power or its pressure pressure potential head , or also as a combination of both of these at the same time, which is typical for dam hydroelectric power stations.

Potential energy originates as a consequence of gravity and depends on a difference in elevation levels. It is also possible to use water heat gradient for energy generation. Currently, small hydroelectric power stations are being built, largely in place of former watermills and existing dams on smaller water courses. Very simple, and therefore also economically acceptable, microturbine technologies are used when building such small hydroelectric power stations.

Tidal energy uses the regularity of tides to generate energy by placing turbines in the direction of an incoming high tide stream or by periodically filling up and draining coastal basins or lagoons. Wave energy can be transformed into electricity in various mechanical or pneumatic ways. In most cases, these are still in the experimental stage. It is ideal to install the systems in places where a sea is metres deep, as this is where the wave energy is most efficient.

In tropical oceans, the thermal gradient between the water surface and water at a depth of 1 km can be used for obtaining energy so called OTEC technology - Ocean thermal energy conversion. The advantage of water energy is, in practice, its inexhaustibility and minimal environmental pollution. Hydroelectric power stations demand minimal servicing and maintenance and they can be operated from a distance.

They can be put into operation during several tens of seconds and therefore can be used for covering immediate energy production demands, in particular in energy peak times it means in time when demand for electricity is increased , and also they can serve as a stand-by power supplies in cases of accidents. Pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations can be also used for compensating energy drops that are caused by wind or solar power plants. Even though water energy ranks among the most widely used RERs, it also has some drawbacks. Hydroelectric power stations are characterized by high investment costs, particularly in the case of large hydroelectric power stations, and this goes hand in hand with impacts on the environment such as needing to flood large areas, destroying water systems, decline of biodiversity and possible social effects.

The amount of energy generated also can depend on seasonal water flow rate fluctuations e. Tidal power stations also suffer from another disadvantage: Also, the sites wellsuited for the construction of these power stations are often remote from points where energy is used. While the potential to use the energy of sea waves is great, a negative aspect is that wave generation depends on the force of wind.

Rotors of turbines driven by streaming air can be used to generate energy. The size of the turbines varies anywhere from small simple turbines fitted onto the roofs of family houses up to individual large turbines with an output power of over 2MW that can be grouped at wind farms built both on land or at sea. Wind energy is easy to convert to electric power and does not generate emissions or waste.

Electric power from large installations is fed directly to the grid, while small units e. The main problems with wind turbines are high investment costs and construction being limited to areas with adequate average wind speed. Reservations have also been voiced about the noise generated by the turbines and their domination in the countryside, which can be disturbing.

Because energy generated by wind power is intermittent, other energy e. Bodypack transmitter General description: Combining the bodypack transmitter with an headworn or clip-on microphone, will give you total freedom of movement during your tour. You will have both hands free to describe an object, make a presentation and express your point.

The transmitter can be easily and comfortably operated, and is highly robust. The back-lit display confirms channel choice, the radio signal and the status of the battery. Two jacks for the microphone and line ensure variable utilization. For example, you will be able to transmit an external audio source such as music from a portable CD player via your transmitter and continue to talk or mute the microphone. Product name, Article No. ME 2-N - Clip-on mic omni-directional Clip-on mic omni-directional; 3.

ME 4-N - Clip-on mic cardioid Clip-on mic cardioid; 3. It fulfils the most stringent demands on sound quality and is extremely rugged. A special Umbrella diaphragm and a welded housing protect the MKE 2-ew Gold against sweat and moisture, making it an ideal choice for theatrical productions. HS 2 ew - Headmic omni-directional Headmic omni-directional; 3. ME 3-N - Headmic super cardioid Headmic super cardioid; 3.

It features a rugged metal body, high suppression of handling noise and excellent rejection of feedback and spillage. Rugged, durable construction, insensitive to handling noise. The e efficiently suppresses sounds emanating from outside its pick-up angle, and is fitted with a hum compensating coil for reducing electromagnetic interference.

CL 1 - Cable Cable for audio devices 3. CL 2 - Mic cable Mic cable 3. CL 1 - Cable Cable para dispositivos de audio, jack de 3. Designed and constructed to the same electronics and audio quality standards as Sennheiser's award-winning. RF wireless systems, our infrared systems offer efficient, dependable commu-nications for a large variety of applications. From portable small-area systems for single- or two-channel use to complex, large-area systems for multi-channel use, we can provide an infrared system for nearly any need.

Our Series high sub-carrier frequency system, for instance, has been designed to eliminate the interference problem that plagues other systems to provide clear, uninterrupted audio. Sennheise's Digital Conference Systems are designed to work dependably and simply in any con-ference setting. The individual delegate units can be combined in a variety of configurations to give maximum flexibility and ease of use, and all conference systems can be easily interfaced with both infrared and interpretation systems for complete conference solutions.

The Televic TIS Series interpretation systems perfectly complement our conference and infrared systems by offering a variety of translation system options.

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Offering simultaneous language trans-lation capabilities of up to eight different languages, these systems provide unparalleled operation in international conference settings. Sennheiser's GuidePORT personal tour system provides a high-quality interactive experience for visitors of museums, theme parks, aquariums, art galleries and more. Users simply approach an exhibit, and the audio program is triggered. Employing Sennheiser's world-renown RF wireless technology, Tourguide systems offer the utmost ease and comfort for any guided tour situation.

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Not only are their easy-to-use components durable and great-sounding, but they offer a cost-effective solution to traditional guided tours. Sennheiser's DirectEar Soundfield Amplification System solves this problem by providing mild amplification designed to optimize speech intelligibility. Now everyone can hear equally regardless of where they are seated in the classroom. All Sennheiser Information Systems can be combined with additional Sennheiser, Innovason, TurboSound, and Chevin products and components to add functionality and versatility.

In addition to the products offered in this brochure, Sennheiser has a full line of audio products which may complement your system. Please contact us at , or at http: Its single- or dual-channel operation 2. RI S Single-channel body pack receiver with neck cord and 3.

HDI Two-channel stethophone receiver with squelch.

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With available mounting hardware, the SI 20 can be easily mounted on walls or ceilings. SZI30 This compact, small to medium-area emitter panel perfectly complements the SI 20 modulator in situations where full, large-area coverage is unnecessary. This easy-to-use, integrated system offers a cost-effective solution for ADA compliance for the hard of hearing, simultaneous language interpretation, and other assistive listening applications. Please use SI 30 or SI With its new SDC conference system, Sennheiser brings the benefits of digital communication technology to the conference room: Optional software allows the conference management to be handled directly from a PC.

SDC can be coupled with a Televic System, allowing for simultaneous language interpretation. SDC is a new generation of mobile, readily expandable equipment essential for modern communications for conferences of all types and sizes. The Delegate Unit and Its Functions The delegate unit features a built-in loudspeaker, allowing the participant to directly hear all audio information, e. The unit's electret microphone ensures that every word is transmitted clearly to all participants.

The mic is fitted with a red LED ring which serves as an indicator of who is allowed to take the floor, who has "applied" for a comment, etc. Controlling Functions for the Conference Chairperson A simple change in configuration is all that is needed to turn the delegate unit into a chairperson unit. Two control keys which are otherwise inactive will be assigned special functions, enabling the chairperson to control the meeting.

For example, he or she can determine who is allowed take the floor, and can pass on the "speaking rights" in queue sequence. For large conferences up to four chairperson units may be configured. Up to 25 conference consoles can be hooked up to the central unit - that's all there is to setting up a basic conference system!

Beyond 25 consoles, add a power supply. Using the central unit, a delegate unit can be programmed as a chairperson unit. During the conference, the central unit "opens" and "closes" the speaking channels. Three basic conference modes can be chosen on the central unit. In "Request" mode, the chairperson allows speaking rights by pressing the "next" key.

External audio, such as a feed from a wired or wireless presenter's mic, may also be interfaced into the Central Unit for distribution to each of the Delegate units. Integral software in the Central Unit makes it easy to set the system to control modes as well as voting and station preferences. Available in three interchangeable series - the , , and Series - each system can be configured to fit the requirements of virtually any application.

The amazing Series is perfect for any musical style, and offers four switchable presets reprogrammable to any of the available frequencies , a true diversity receiver for stable, high-quality transmission, and -unlike other wireless systems at this price - high-quality metal construction that will stand up to the rigors of life on the road. In addition, an alphanumeric name can be assigned to the receiver. You'll get much greater quality, without on-stage feedback problems.

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Con innovaSON no necesita de cuatro miembros del personal para levantar y acarrear su consola. Estamos Listos Para Usted: Salida de RF conector hembra de 3. The voice General field: Other Source text - English The Voice: The demands that you make of yourself and your voice are the following: But with a little more understanding about how the voice works and how it produces sound, you will soon realise that there are better alternatives.

And this is where it starts, as tiny vibrations on your vocal cords. But there is more to a voice than that. And it is this resonance that you have to make use of. But this sound needs to be amplified by a resonator — your own body. In other words, you are your own instrument. Pitch depends on the tenseness of the vocal cords. A higher tension produces a higher note, less tension produces lower notes. The many different fine motor adjustments of the vocal cords cannot be controlled and should rather be left to themselves.

The brain is able to subconsciously communicate to the vocal cords how the sequence of notes is to be formed. If you are well prepared, have practiced enough and are certain of the words and the tune, your intonation, timing, sound and expression will also be correct whenever they need to be. The only task that breath has in singing is to maintain the fine vibrations of the vocal folds — similar to the way in which a violin bow causes the string to vibrate. Even a very slight flow of air is enough. You need only a small amount of air to produce your notes, no matter how loud you want them to be.

Therefore, you must learn not to use up the available air but to control it.

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A very special breathing technique is used to achieve this breath control. In this technique, something resembling a column of air is established in the body, and the vibration of the vocal cords is then transferred to it, with the result that your whole body becomes part of the vibration. Lower your shoulders — maintain the tension in the back Bild schultern-unten. You will also notice that your stomach moves inwards.

Breath out while maintaining the upright posture Bild ausatmung. Let the air drop into the stomach Bild einatmung. Incorrect posture Bild haltung-hohlkreuz. Maintaining this posture is the only physical work required, but it can become hard work over a longer period of time. However, it ensures that the throat is not tensed or restricted at any time and the voice is able to open up and develop fully. A feeling of stability is established — outwardly controlled with an upright posture, inwardly free of tension and wide open.

The movement of the stomach muscles outwards and downwards causes the diaphragm to move as well, and as the diaphragm moves downwards, the sides of the lungs are also pulled downwards. The result is a partial vacuum in the lungs, which causes air to be drawn in. Since the lungs are now filled with air evenly and not only in the upper region — which is normally the case when you consciously breathe in — you have the feeling that the air is flowing into the stomach.

Schematic diagram of the breathing process — side view Bild aus-ein-atmung. The correct posture will give you optimum stability. The Resonators In order to control your voice, you need to know where the voice resonates in the body and how it is amplified. Basically, the voice can be divided into two sound registers: There are also mixed forms which vary between the two.

The Chest and the Abdomen For low notes, the chest voice resonates more in the chest or perhaps even in the abdomen, shifting its resonance further and further upwards as the notes climb up the scale. That is by no means easy because, above a certain pitch around E1 , the voice tries to change over to the head voice.

Preventing this from happening requires special training. For female singers in particular, it is important to concentrate on the low resonances in the chest and to further develop the voice there. In the registers of the pure chest voice D to b: Link zu Stil below c1, the vocal range is just about at its limits. Generally speaking, deep resonances give the voice more sound, for both male and female singers.

Therefore, before you try to extend your limits upwards, you should first of all try to stabilise and strengthen your normal chest voice — its range may well go much lower than you think. What is important is that you become aware of precisely where you can feel your voice in your head. Very special sounds are produced there, such as snarling, rasping, growling, squeaking, etc. Experiment with these sounds and, without pressure, give free rein to your voice.

Although these delicate sound components in your voice are very quiet and inconspicuous, when used correctly and in combination with the right microphone, they can be used to produce a very individual sound. Of course, one can prevent this by technical means link: Technology, Filters, Dynamic Processors , but it is nevertheless important to train your pronunciation in order to eliminate such excessively reproduced frequencies. Room Acoustics So far, we have developed your depth of sound and head resonances as well as your feeling for sounds in the jaws, palate and throat.

As you become more and more aware of these sounds, you will learn to control them. As a singer, you are dependent not only on a stable body awareness but also on the acoustics of the room you are in. The way your voice sounds in the room can have a very decisive influence on your feeling for phrasing and intonation. The room contains air which also vibrates, in turn causing reflections. Make sure that you are familiar with the acoustic conditions of the room in which you are singing. Harmonics Seen from a purely physical point of view, every note is the sum of harmonic notes or overtones.

Every note is accompanied by a certain series of overtones. If this series changes while you are singing, the mood of the note also changes. The harmonic series consists of a large number of overtones, and some of them are continually dropping out or slipping. This does not matter, provided that the notes are still precise and sound in tune. Sensitive large-diaphragm studio microphones in particular e.

Whereas in normal room environments a certain lack of precision is permitted and is hardly noticed, in the sound studio on the other hand it is possible to clearly hear that the sound is slightly out of tune — and you have a problem. Lifestyle — what helps your voice and what harms your voice Of course, there are many rules for looking after your voice.

A healthy voice needs a healthy body. Alcohol makes your body tired and clouds your mind. You need good concentration and a good level of fitness both on stage and in the studio — so try to keep fit! Here are a few tips on looking after your voice: Try to avoid smoke-filled rooms, as your respiratory tract needs to stay healthy. Smoking damages the lungs. The fine hairs in the bronchial tubes which filter out germs and dust get burnt, and nicotine deposits on the vocal folds inhibit their vibration. Eating light food and drinking enough — but not too much — fluid are better for your voice.

Strong medicine is a voice blocker. Sing often and take pleasure in it — and never sing just for the sake of it. Your voice sounds better in its optimum range, and it is better for your voice as well. And the songs sound better. The wider your understanding of music, the better. Learn to play an instrument. La voz como instrumento Esta noche hay un ensayo con la banda.

Las exigencias que haces de ti mismo y de tu voz, son las siguientes: Y de esta resonancia es de la que debes hacer uso. Pero este sonido necesita ser amplificado por un resonador — tu propio cuerpo. Los muy diversos ajustes motores finos de las cuerdas vocales no pueden ser controlados, y es preferible dejarselos a ellas.

Incluso, un muy ligero flujo de aire es suficiente. Por lo tanto, debes aprender a no agotar la cantidad de aire disponible, sino a controlarlo. Exhala mientras mantienes la postura erguida Bild ausatmung. Postura correcta Bild haltung-gerade. Evitar que esto suceda, requiere de un entrenamiento especial. Museo Argentino de Ciencias. Conservation International, Washington, DC. Biological Conservation, 3: Working Papers on Economics. Current Issues in Tourism, Journal of Ecotourism, 5 3: A Manual for Conservation Planners and Managers The Nature Conservancy 1.

Science of the Total Environment, 1: Marine pollution Bulletin, 54 6: Applied animal behaviour science, 1: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1 2: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, What are the impacts and how should the industry be managed? NatureBased Tourism in Peripherial Areas: Impacts, management and planning. Insights from the natural and social sciences. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23 3: Tourism and the Consumption of Wildlife: Hunting, Shooting and Sport Fishing.

Marine Wildlife and Tourism Management: Insights from the natural and social sciences pp. Marine Mammal Science, 6: Tourism management, 22 1: Journal of Ecotourism, 3 1: Annals of Tourism Research, 36 4: World Society for the Protection of Animals. Applications in parks, recreation and human dimensions. Human Ecology Review, 10 2: Via Delphi Group, Swin with Delphinus. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

Annals of Leisure Research, 16 1: Society and animals, 3 2: Abstract Cozumel is a consolidated tourist destination after 50 years of tourism activity, although indicators are in declinein medium term, this work aims to identify current and potential sustainable tourism strategies and for the island. The methodology consisted in literature and hemerographic reviews, asemistructured interview guide applied to ten tourism managers. The method was arrangedinto five workshops including members of the fishing cooperative, tourism cooperative Lagunas de Cozumel and service providers, that are registered within the Cozumel Reefs National Park.

The results of the strategies are grouped according to the classification of Porter , segmentation and differentiation are the main axis, tending towards sustainability, linked to sport activities and use of natural resources, with the intention of capture market segments to maintain a national and international geoposition. El modelo de Kay propone crear nuevos productos para los mercados existentes, o viceversa.

Con esta estrategia se ha logrado captar el seg-. Tourism Management, 21 1 , Tourism Manag ement, 20 5: Journal of Business Research, v. Journal of Travel Research, Annals of Tourism Research 28 4: Journal of sustainable tourism, 13 6 , Tourism Management, 19 6: A Sustainable tourism perspective.

Banco Chinchorro, cooperativas, Reserva de la Biosfera, pesca comercial y deportiva. Abstract This chapter describes, from an anthropological analysis, the fragil situation in an area with great marine biodiversity for commercial fishing of high value species lobster and conch. A fishing culture was institutionalized in the area since , when Xcalak cooperative was conformed.

Since , due to the use, access and control of this area, it was declared as the Biosphere Reserve of Banco Chinchorro, it has different actors who converge with primary and tertiary activities conservation given by the National Commission of Natural Protected Areas CONANP , the Marina of Mexico, fishing cooperatives, and also poachers and drug smugglers in the Caribbean.

The tertiary sector highlights tourists and lovers of nautical leisure and sport fishing diving and snorkeling , who find an ideal site to go, instead of the mass tourism places on the northern state of Quintana Roo. Dicho lugar incluye dentro de sus inmediaciones diversos ecosistemas y formaciones naturales: Dicho lugar era usa-.

Zona de Pesca Cooperativa. En este mapa se muestran las tres zonas de uso que tiene la Reserva de la Biosfera Banco Chinchorro. Esta actividad es realizada por tres organizaciones o cooperativas de pescadores legalmente registradas, de las cuales dos provienen o tienen sus oficinas en la ciudad de Chetumal, en Mahahual y en Xcalak respectivamente. Frente a cada casa y en el mar se encuentran sus chiqueros o trampas para langosta o caracol respectivamente. En visitaron el Banco personas para el buceo y para. En el caso de algunos naufragios a los turistas se les permite tocar e introducirse en ellos, aunque esto es bajo su propio riesgo.

El siguiente testimonio da cuenta de ello: Sin embargo, a muchos pescadores no les interesan estos cursos, ya que a pesar. Sin embargo, un sector de los pescadores afirma que ella hace caso omiso a sus peticiones, y asegura que no los atiende personalmente cuando se trata de arreglar inconformidades como estas. Por otro lado, los pescadores se sienten violentados en su derecho de explotar las especies existentes debido a las vedas.

La cabeza de langosta la empezamos a aprovechar pero ahora la vendemos viva porque eso pide el. En este sentido, el. El cambio de pescador a turistero: Por tal motivo, no augura un buen futuro para las cooperativas que trabajan en Banco Chinchorro, afirmando que la actividad pesquera va a desaparecer por completo.

Sin embargo, no se ha comprobado nada, quedando todo en chismes y acusaciones sin argumento. Por lo menos eso fue lo que se es-. De La Cruz Modino, R. Hadad W, Fraga J. The case of Xcalak reefs national park, Mexico. University of Colorado Pascual, J.

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Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano Banco Chinchorro. Como pachocheros se le conoce a los pescadores furtivos, que trafican con los productos obtenidos de la pesca de alto valor comercial, protegidos por las vedas oficiales por la Ley de Pesca. Abstract This chapter, from a geographical and anthropological perspective, analyzes the implications derived for the labor force in tourism settlements.

In just 40 years small and medium-sized cities, which are the support of the labor that works in those tourist destinations are based along the Caribbean. Main problems are identified, and foundational processes are highlited, as well as the spatial differentiation of enclaves such as the cities of Puerto Morelos, Akumal, Chemuyil, Puerto Aventuras and Tulum. Labour migration is a factor in the formation of these settlements behind the beaches, where they build subdivisions, settlements and camps.

They form the outskirts of the coastal beach front in which there are large privatized areas such as hotels, villas, golf courses, marinas and theme parks fronts. Estas poblaciones no superaban los 1. En Quintana Roo, nueve de los diez municipios son costeros: Blanco, Tulum y Bacalar. Al mismo tiempo el espacio costero tomaba relevancia con el desarrollo de actividades para el transporte de carga hacia Cozumel y viceversa. En el primero, las localidades emisoras de migrantes son principalmente Valladolid, Chemax y Kantunil. El pueblo de Puerto aventuras destaca, porque el total de los encuestados no es peninsular.

Lugar de origen de los encuestados. La propiedad de vivienda en los pueblos de origen se mantiene, resalta Akumal y Puerto Morelos, ya que la mitad de los entrevistados cuenta con vivienda propia en su lugar de origen. Porcentaje de habitantes con vivienda propia en el pueblo de apoyo. Porcentaje de habitantes con vivienda propia en su lugar de origen. Para Re Cruz , estos espacios se diferencian al ser habitados por inmigrantes de comunidades rurales, quienes proveen la fuerza laboral y brindan soporte. Comentarios Finales Los pueblos de apoyo al turismo en el Caribe mexicano constituyen una plataforma de soporte fundamental para la otra cara del turismo: Preguntas para el debate: Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10 4: Universidad de Quintana Roo.

A state of the art review, Tourism Geographies: Daley, E y Torres, R. Estudios de Cultura Maya.

Revista de turismo y patrimonio cultural, 7: Estudios y perspectivas del turismo. Lugosi, P y Ladking, A. Annals of Tourism Research. Botswana Tourism Management, Pi-Sunyer, O y Broke, R. Alpuche Gual y G. Annual Review of Environmental Resources,. Current Issues in Tourism, 8 4 — Tourist Studies 13 3: The Challenge of Sustainability. Estudios y perspectivas en turismo, Reflexiones sobre el Caribe mexicano. Decidimos respetarlas en su conjunto, con el objetivo de cubrir las inquietudes de los mismos autores y coautores en el proceso de pensar el libro: Debido a este incremento del mercado de las experiencias en turismo y ocio, es sorprendente observar a las personas, que demandan actividades nunca antes realizadas.

El bienestar subjetivo que ahora promueve el gobierno mexicano, para generar indicadores de felicidad Helliwell et al. Le toca ahora el turno a los lectores, lanzar sus propias interrogantes que surjan de esta lectura. Los autores provienen de las ciencias sociales. Reflexiones sobre el Caribe Mexicano.

Reflexiones sobre el Caribe Mexicano Turismo y ocio. El Caribe mexicano, el territorio ideal para el escrutinio de las 20 Turismo y ocio: Leisure, tourism of experiences, marketing, disneyzation, corporative culture 26 Turismo y ocio: Estos autores, distinguen entre la libertad de escoger ocio como libertad , y el permiso de escoger ocio como control, don- 28 Turismo y ocio: La experiencia de ocio fija su realidad en el presente, pero se enriquece en la medida que incorpora significativamente el pasado y el futuro que le correspon- 32 Turismo y ocio: Entrenamiento en Delfinario Xcaret.

Foto Leila Khafash, que con el objetivo de rescatar las tradiciones. Sin embargo, cuando se habla de las bellezas naturales de la costa de Quintana Roo pocos saben que la existencia de este Figura 1. Benavides y Franco tes espacios recreativos, servicios educativos o de salud Romero Marine wildlife, Xcaret, Swim-with-dolphin programs, motivations, satisfaction Turismo de fauna silvestre: En los parques marinos, la supervivencia de la especie entonces queda suprimida, sometida o modificada en nombre de las Turismo de fauna silvestre: Programa de nado con delfines: Participante interactuando con delfines.

Banco Chinchorro, cooperatives, Biosphere Reserve, commercial and sport fishing.